Services

Hazard Assessment and Risk Quantification: The quantification of seismic hazard levels associated with production areas, mining strategies and geological structures, and the quantification of associated risks is a fundamental part of the management of mining induced seismicity. For a comparative hazard assessment of production areas see Seismic-Hazard-Assessment

Data Analysis: Analytical methods applied to seismic data sets range from various descriptive statistical tools to area comparative tools, such as Gutenberg-Richter Graphs, Ground-Motion Relation, and Energy-Moment Relation.

Data evaluation: As in many geophysical disciplines seismic data often only becomes useful after it has been integrated with information from other disciplines. The most common fields are production, rock mechanics, geology, and loss control. A typical application would be the use of seismic data to delineate previously unknown geological structures ahead of the face in a long wall mining layout.

Procedures: As important as continuous quantification is for the assessment of seismicity, as essential is the design and implementation of adequate procedures for the successful management of this hazard. Procedures describe appropriate actions under pre-defined conditions, specifying the flow of information between involved parties and assigning responsibilites where action needs to be taken.

Code of Practice: The Department for Minerals and Energy has issued guidelines for the compilation of a mandatory code of practice to combat rock fall and rockburst accidents in tabular metalliferous mines (DME 6/3/2/1-A3). This Code of Practice needs to be reviewed by a person competent in the field of mining induced seismicity. Find other DME requirements for seismically active mines under References

Training: The training of rock engineering and other mine personnel in mine seismology is essential for a comprehensive seismic risk management strategy to succeed. An understanding of seismic data interpretation results increases the likelihood that seismic information is perceived as being of assistance to the larger mining operation. For details go to Mine Seismology Training or download Mine Seismology for Rock Engineers (© 2004 ACG).

System Design: Prior to the installation of a new seismic network monitoring objectives should be defined according to the needs of the mining operation and in consideration of historic losses. These objectives form the basis of a network design whose performance can be modeled and adapted within the constraints of mining strategy and financial requirements.

Rockburst Investigation: The proper assessment of rockburst incidents from a combination of underground observations and seismic data offers an opportunity to identify the source mechanism, determine potentially hazardous layouts and revise the mining strategy to reduce seismicity related losses in an operation.

Auditing: Reviews of existing seismic systems, their management and technical performance and the procedures implemented to communicate seismic information to customers should be carried out regularly to ensure the best possible utilisation of this resource. Find details under Seismic Service Audit.

Layout Evaluation: Where the quality of seismic data sets is sufficiently high, they can be evaluated in terms of 'best mining practice' and 'optimum layout'. Seismic monitoring offers opportunities to assess the degree of hazard associated with a certain layout and allows favourable, low seismic energy release practice to be implemented.

Strategy: When faced with seismicity related losses mining operations need to make strategic decisions regarding the management of this risk. The participation of a specialist in mine seismology in this process helps to assess the needs adequately, to evaluate the requirements and to formulate an appropriate strategy. Where legal issues are concerned, for example under external scrutiny, a mine may wish to be represented by an expert consultant in the field.