Rockbursts

A rockburst is defined as a seismic event that results in damage.

Heave

Footwall heave, punching and ejection of support units is often the result of seismic energy release beneath an excavation.

Rockburst investigation: A rockburst investigation aims to establish the cause of the seismic event and determines its failure mechanism at the source. It describes the damage mechanism resulting in excavation failure, including the performance of excavation support. The aim is to identify opportunities for improvement by either eliminating the seismic emission source from the mining system or by better protecting excavations from the effects of seismicity.

Seismic hazard level: The level of seismic hazard at the time of the rockburst should reflect the increased probabilty of damaging seismicity to occur. The seismic history of the affected area, the geo-seismic hazard, and the latest trends in seismicity parameters should all form part of a rockburst investigation.

Reporting: The minimum requirement for routine rockburst reporting comprises time and location, basic seismic source parameters of the underlying seismic event, a rock mass description and a quantification of the damage.